 # Tutorial 2: Hidden Markov Model¶

Week 3, Day 2: Hidden Dynamics

Content creators: Yicheng Fei with help from Jesse Livezey and Xaq Pitkow

Content reviewers: John Butler, Matt Krause, Meenakshi Khosla, Spiros Chavlis, Michael Waskom

Production editor: Ella Batty

# Tutorial objectives¶

Estimated timing of tutorial: 1 hour, 5 minutes

The world around us is often changing, but we only have noisy sensory measurements. Similarly, neural systems switch between discrete states (e.g. sleep/wake) which are observable only indirectly, through their impact on neural activity. Hidden Markov Models (HMM) let us reason about these unobserved (also called hidden or latent) states using a time series of measurements.

Here we’ll learn how changing the HMM’s transition probability and measurement noise impacts the data. We’ll look at how uncertainty increases as we predict the future, and how to gain information from the measurements.

We will use a binary latent variable $$s_t \in \{0,1\}$$ that switches randomly between the two states, and a 1D Gaussian emission model $$m_t|s_t \sim \mathcal{N}(\mu_{s_t},\sigma^2_{s_t})$$ that provides evidence about the current state.

By the end of this tutorial, you should be able to:

• Describe how the hidden states in a Hidden Markov model evolve over time, both in words, mathematically, and in code

• Estimate hidden states from data using forward inference in a Hidden Markov model

• Describe how measurement noise and state transition probabilities affect uncertainty in predictions in the future and the ability to estimate hidden states.

Summary of Exercises

1. Generate data from an HMM.

2. Calculate how predictions propagate in a Markov Chain without evidence.

3. Combine new evidence and prediction from past evidence to estimate hidden states.

# Setup¶

# Imports

import numpy as np
import time
from scipy import stats
from scipy.optimize import linear_sum_assignment
from collections import namedtuple

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from matplotlib import patches


## Figure Settings¶

#@title Figure Settings
# import ipywidgets as widgets       # interactive display
from IPython.html import widgets
from ipywidgets import interactive, interact, HBox, Layout,VBox
from IPython.display import HTML
%config InlineBackend.figure_format = 'retina'

/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.7.11/x64/lib/python3.7/site-packages/IPython/html.py:14: ShimWarning: The IPython.html package has been deprecated since IPython 4.0. You should import from notebook instead. IPython.html.widgets has moved to ipywidgets.
"IPython.html.widgets has moved to ipywidgets.", ShimWarning)


## Plotting Functions¶

# @title Plotting Functions

def plot_hmm1(model, states, measurements, flag_m=True):
"""Plots HMM states and measurements for 1d states and measurements.

Args:
model (hmmlearn model):               hmmlearn model used to get state means.
states (numpy array of floats):       Samples of the states.
measurements (numpy array of floats): Samples of the states.
"""
T = states.shape
nsteps = states.size
aspect_ratio = 2
fig, ax1 = plt.subplots(figsize=(8,4))
states_forplot = list(map(lambda s: model.means[s], states))
ax1.step(np.arange(nstep), states_forplot, "-", where="mid", alpha=1.0, c="green")
ax1.set_xlabel("Time")
ax1.set_ylabel("Latent State", c="green")
ax1.set_yticks([-1, 1])
ax1.set_yticklabels(["-1", "+1"])
ax1.set_xticks(np.arange(0,T,10))
ymin = min(measurements)
ymax = max(measurements)

ax2 = ax1.twinx()
ax2.set_ylabel("Measurements", c="crimson")

# show measurement gaussian
if flag_m:
ax2.plot([T,T],ax2.get_ylim(), color="maroon", alpha=0.6)
for i in range(model.n_components):
mu = model.means[i]
scale = np.sqrt(model.vars[i])
rv = stats.norm(mu, scale)
num_points = 50
domain = np.linspace(mu-3*scale, mu+3*scale, num_points)

left = np.repeat(float(T), num_points)
# left = np.repeat(0.0, num_points)
offset = rv.pdf(domain)
offset *= T / 15
lbl = "measurement" if i == 0 else ""
# ax2.fill_betweenx(domain, left, left-offset, alpha=0.3, lw=2, color="maroon", label=lbl)
ax2.fill_betweenx(domain, left+offset, left, alpha=0.3, lw=2, color="maroon", label=lbl)
ax2.scatter(np.arange(nstep), measurements, c="crimson", s=4)
ax2.legend(loc="upper left")
ax1.set_ylim(ax2.get_ylim())
plt.show(fig)

def plot_marginal_seq(predictive_probs, switch_prob):
"""Plots the sequence of marginal predictive distributions.

Args:
predictive_probs (list of numpy vectors): sequence of predictive probability vectors
switch_prob (float):                      Probability of switching states.
"""
T = len(predictive_probs)
prob_neg = [p_vec for p_vec in predictive_probs]
prob_pos = [p_vec for p_vec in predictive_probs]
fig, ax = plt.subplots()
ax.plot(np.arange(T), prob_neg, color="blue")
ax.plot(np.arange(T), prob_pos, color="orange")
ax.legend([
"prob in state -1", "prob in state 1"
])
ax.text(T/2, 0.05, "switching probability={}".format(switch_prob), fontsize=12,
bbox=dict(boxstyle="round", facecolor="wheat", alpha=0.6))
ax.set_xlabel("Time")
ax.set_ylabel("Probability")
ax.set_title("Forgetting curve in a changing world")
#ax.set_aspect(aspect_ratio)
plt.show(fig)

def plot_evidence_vs_noevidence(posterior_matrix, predictive_probs):
"""Plots the average posterior probabilities with evidence v.s. no evidence

Args:
posterior_matrix: (2d numpy array of floats): The posterior probabilities in state 1 from evidence (samples, time)
predictive_probs (numpy array of floats):  Predictive probabilities in state 1 without evidence
"""
nsample, T = posterior_matrix.shape
posterior_mean = posterior_matrix.mean(axis=0)
fig, ax = plt.subplots(1)
# ax.plot([0.0, T],[0.5, 0.5], color="red", linestyle="dashed")
ax.plot([0.0, T],[0., 0.], color="red", linestyle="dashed")
ax.plot(np.arange(T), predictive_probs, c="orange", linewidth=2, label="No evidence")
ax.scatter(np.tile(np.arange(T), (nsample, 1)), posterior_matrix, s=0.8, c="green", alpha=0.3, label="With evidence(Sample)")
ax.plot(np.arange(T), posterior_mean, c='green', linewidth=2, label="With evidence(Average)")
ax.legend()
ax.set_yticks([0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0])
ax.set_xlabel("Time")
ax.set_ylabel("Probability in State +1")
ax.set_title("Gain confidence with evidence")
plt.show(fig)

def plot_forward_inference(model, states, measurements, states_inferred,
predictive_probs, likelihoods, posterior_probs,
t=None,
flag_m=True, flag_d=True, flag_pre=True, flag_like=True, flag_post=True,
):
"""Plot ground truth state sequence with noisy measurements, and ground truth states v.s. inferred ones

Args:
model (instance of hmmlearn.GaussianHMM): an instance of HMM
states (numpy vector): vector of 0 or 1(int or Bool), the sequences of true latent states
measurements (numpy vector of numpy vector): the un-flattened Gaussian measurements at each time point, element has size (1,)
states_inferred (numpy vector): vector of 0 or 1(int or Bool), the sequences of inferred latent states
"""
T = states.shape
if t is None:
t = T-1
nsteps = states.size
fig, ax1 = plt.subplots(figsize=(11,6))
# inferred states
#ax1.step(np.arange(nstep)[:t+1], states_forplot[:t+1], "-", where="mid", alpha=1.0, c="orange", label="inferred")
# true states
states_forplot = list(map(lambda s: model.means[s], states))
ax1.step(np.arange(nstep)[:t+1], states_forplot[:t+1], "-", where="mid", alpha=1.0, c="green", label="true")
ax1.step(np.arange(nstep)[t+1:], states_forplot[t+1:], "-", where="mid", alpha=0.3, c="green", label="")
# Posterior curve
delta = model.means - model.means
states_interpolation = model.means + delta * posterior_probs[:,1]
if flag_post:
ax1.step(np.arange(nstep)[:t+1], states_interpolation[:t+1], "-", where="mid", c="grey", label="posterior")

ax1.set_xlabel("Time")
ax1.set_ylabel("Latent State", c="green")
ax1.set_yticks([-1, 1])
ax1.set_yticklabels(["-1", "+1"])

ax2 = ax1.twinx()
ax2.set_ylim(
min(-1.2, np.min(measurements)),
max(1.2, np.max(measurements))
)
if flag_d:
ax2.scatter(np.arange(nstep)[:t+1], measurements[:t+1], c="crimson", s=4, label="measurement")
ax2.set_ylabel("Measurements", c="crimson")

# show measurement distributions
if flag_m:
for i in range(model.n_components):
mu = model.means[i]
scale = np.sqrt(model.vars[i])
rv = stats.norm(mu, scale)
num_points = 50
domain = np.linspace(mu-3*scale, mu+3*scale, num_points)

left = np.repeat(float(T), num_points)
offset = rv.pdf(domain)
offset *= T /15
# lbl = "measurement" if i == 0 else ""
lbl = ""
# ax2.fill_betweenx(domain, left, left-offset, alpha=0.3, lw=2, color="maroon", label=lbl)
ax2.fill_betweenx(domain, left+offset, left, alpha=0.3, lw=2, color="maroon", label=lbl)
ymin, ymax = ax2.get_ylim()
width = 0.1 * (ymax-ymin) / 2.0
centers = [-1.0, 1.0]
bar_scale = 15

# Predictions
data = predictive_probs
if flag_pre:
for i in range(model.n_components):
domain = np.array([centers[i]-1.5*width, centers[i]-0.5*width])
left = np.array([t,t])
offset = np.array([data[t,i]]*2)
offset *= bar_scale
lbl = "todays prior" if i == 0 else ""
ax2.fill_betweenx(domain, left+offset, left, alpha=0.3, lw=2, color="dodgerblue", label=lbl)

# Likelihoods
# data = np.stack([likelihoods, 1.0-likelihoods],axis=-1)
data = likelihoods
data /= np.sum(data,axis=-1, keepdims=True)
if flag_like:
for i in range(model.n_components):
domain = np.array([centers[i]+0.5*width, centers[i]+1.5*width])
left = np.array([t,t])
offset = np.array([data[t,i]]*2)
offset *= bar_scale
lbl = "likelihood" if i == 0 else ""
ax2.fill_betweenx(domain, left+offset, left, alpha=0.3, lw=2, color="crimson", label=lbl)
# Posteriors
data = posterior_probs
if flag_post:
for i in range(model.n_components):
domain = np.array([centers[i]-0.5*width, centers[i]+0.5*width])
left = np.array([t,t])
offset = np.array([data[t,i]]*2)
offset *= bar_scale
lbl = "posterior" if i == 0 else ""
ax2.fill_betweenx(domain, left+offset, left, alpha=0.3, lw=2, color="grey", label=lbl)
if t<T-1:
ax2.plot([t,t],ax2.get_ylim(), color='black',alpha=0.6)
if flag_pre or flag_like or flag_post:
ax2.plot([t,t],ax2.get_ylim(), color='black',alpha=0.6)

ax1.set_ylim(ax2.get_ylim())
return fig
# plt.show(fig)


# Section 1: Binary HMM with Gaussian measurements¶

In contrast to last tutorial, the latent state in an HMM is not fixed, but may switch to a different state at each time step. The time dependence is simple: the probability of the state at time $$t$$ is wholely determined by the state at time $$t-1$$. This is called called the Markov property and the dependency of the whole state sequence $$\{s_1,...,s_t\}$$ can be described by a chain structure called a Markov Chain. You have seen a Markov chain in the pre-reqs Statistics day and in the Linear Systems Tutorial 2.

Markov model for binary latent dynamics

Let’s reuse the binary switching process you saw in the Linear Systems Tutorial 2: our state can be either +1 or -1. The probability of switching to state $$s_t=j$$ from the previous state $$s_{t-1}=i$$ is the conditional probability distribution $$p(s_t = j| s_{t-1} = i)$$. We can summarize these as a $$2\times 2$$ matrix we will denote $$D$$ for Dynamics.

\begin{align*} D = \begin{bmatrix}p(s_t = +1 | s_{t-1} = +1) & p(s_t = -1 | s_{t-1} = +1)\\p(s_t = +1 | s_{t-1} = -1)& p(s_t = -1 | s_{t-1} = -1)\end{bmatrix} \end{align*}

$$D_{ij}$$ represents the transition probability to switch from state $$i$$ to state $$j$$ at next time step. Please note that this is contrast to the meaning used in the intro and in Linear Systems (their transition matrices are the transpose of ours) but syncs with the pre-reqs Statistics day.

We can represent the probability of the current state as a 2-dimensional vector

$$P_t = [p(s_t = +1), p(s_t = -1)]$$

. The entries are the probability that the current state is +1 and the probability that the current state is -1 so these must sum up to 1.

We then update the probabilities over time following the Markov process:

\begin{align*} P_{t}= P_{t-1}D \tag{1} \end{align*}

If you know the state, the entries of $$P_{t-1}$$ would be either 1 or 0 as there is no uncertainty.

Measurements

In a Hidden Markov model, we cannot directly observe the latent states $$s_t$$. Instead we get noisy measurements $$m_t\sim p(m|s_t)$$.

## Coding Exercise 1.1: Simulate a binary HMM with Gaussian measurements¶

In this exercise, you will implement a binary HMM with Gaussian measurements. Your HMM will start in State +1 and transition between states (both $$-1 \rightarrow 1$$ and $$1 \rightarrow -1$$) with probability switch_prob. Each state emits measurements drawn from a Gaussian with mean $$+1$$ for State +1 and mean $$-1$$ for State -1. The standard deviation of both states is given by noise_level.

The exercises in the next cell have three steps:

STEP 1. In create_HMM, complete the transition matrix transmat_ (i.e., $$D$$) in the code.

$\begin{equation*} D = \begin{pmatrix} p_{\rm stay} & p_{\rm switch} \\ p_{\rm switch} & p_{\rm stay} \\ \end{pmatrix} \end{equation*}$

with $$p_{\rm stay} = 1 - p_{\rm switch}$$.

STEP 2. In create_HMM, specify gaussian measurements $$m_t | s_t$$, by specifying the means for each state, and the standard deviation.

STEP 3. In sample, use the transition matrix to specify the probabilities for the next state $$s_t$$ given the previous state $$s_{t-1}$$.

In this exercise, we will use a helper data structure named GaussianHMM1D, implemented in the following cell. This allows us to set the information we need about the HMM model (the starting probabilities of state, the transition matrix, the means and variances of the Gaussian distributions, and the number of components) and easily access it. For example, if we can set our model using:

  model = GaussianHMM1D(
startprob = startprob_vec,
transmat = transmat_mat,
means = means_vec,
vars = vars_vec,
n_components = n_components
)


and then access the variances as:

model.vars


Also note that we refer to the states as 0 and 1 in the code, instead of as -1 and +1.

GaussianHMM1D = namedtuple('GaussianHMM1D', ['startprob', 'transmat','means','vars','n_components'])

def create_HMM(switch_prob=0.1, noise_level=1e-1, startprob=[1.0, 0.0]):
"""Create an HMM with binary state variable and 1D Gaussian measurements
The probability to switch to the other state is switch_prob. Two
measurement models have mean 1.0 and -1.0 respectively. noise_level
specifies the standard deviation of the measurement models.

Args:
noise_level (float): standard deviation of measurement models. Same for
two components

Returns:
model (GaussianHMM instance): the described HMM
"""

############################################################################
# Insert your code here to:
#   * Create the transition matrix, transmat_mat so that the odds of
#      switching is switch_prob
#		* Set the measurement model variances, to noise_level ^ 2 for both
#      states
raise NotImplementedError("create_HMM is incomplete")
############################################################################

n_components = 2

startprob_vec = np.asarray(startprob)

# STEP 1: Transition probabilities
transmat_mat = ... # np.array([[...], [...]])

# STEP 2: Measurement probabilities

# Mean measurements for each state
means_vec = ...

# Noise for each state
vars_vec = np.ones(2) * ...

# Initialize model
model = GaussianHMM1D(
startprob = startprob_vec,
transmat = transmat_mat,
means = means_vec,
vars = vars_vec,
n_components = n_components
)

return model

def sample(model, T):
"""Generate samples from the given HMM

Args:
model (GaussianHMM1D): the HMM with Gaussian measurement
T (int): number of time steps to sample

Returns:
M (numpy vector): the series of measurements
S (numpy vector): the series of latent states

"""
############################################################################
# Insert your code here to:
#   * take row i from model.transmat to get the transition probabilities
#       from state i to all states
raise NotImplementedError("sample is incomplete")
############################################################################
# Initialize S and M
S = np.zeros((T,),dtype=int)
M = np.zeros((T,))

# Calculate initial state
S = np.random.choice([0,1],p=model.startprob)

# Latent state at time t depends on t-1 and the corresponding transition probabilities to other states
for t in range(1,T):

# STEP 3: Get vector of probabilities for all possible S[t] given a particular S[t-1]
transition_vector = ...

# Calculate latent state at time t
S[t] = np.random.choice([0,1],p=transition_vector)

# Calculate measurements conditioned on the latent states
# Since measurements are independent of each other given the latent states, we could calculate them as a batch
means = model.means[S]
scales = np.sqrt(model.vars[S])
M = np.random.normal(loc=means, scale=scales, size=(T,))

return M, S

# Set random seed
np.random.seed(101)

# Set parameters of HMM
T = 100
switch_prob = 0.1
noise_level = 2.0

# Create HMM
model = create_HMM(switch_prob=switch_prob, noise_level=noise_level)

# Sample from HMM
M, S = sample(model,T)
assert M.shape==(T,)
assert S.shape==(T,)

# Print values
print(M[:5])
print(S[:5])


Click for solution

You should see that the first five measurements are:

[-3.09355908  1.58552915 -3.93502804 -1.98819072 -1.32506947]

while the first five states are:

[0 0 0 0 0]

## Interactive Demo 1.2: Binary HMM¶

In the demo below, we simulate and plot a similar HMM. You can change the probability of switching states and the noise level (the standard deviation of the Gaussian distributions for measurements). You can click the empty box to also visualize the measurements.

First, think about and discuss these questions:

1. What will the states do if the switching probability is zero? One?

2. What will measurements look like with high noise? Low?

Then, play with the demo to see if you were correct or not.

### ¶

Execute this cell to enable the widget!

#@title

#@markdown Execute this cell to enable the widget!

nstep = 100

@widgets.interact
def plot_samples_widget(
switch_prob=widgets.FloatSlider(min=0.0, max=1.0, step=0.02, value=0.1),
log10_noise_level=widgets.FloatSlider(min=-1., max=1., step=.01, value=-0.3),
flag_m=widgets.Checkbox(value=False, description='measurements', disabled=False, indent=False)
):
np.random.seed(101)
model = create_HMM(switch_prob=switch_prob,
noise_level=10.**log10_noise_level)
print(model)
observations, states = sample(model, nstep)
plot_hmm1(model, states, observations, flag_m=flag_m)


Click for solution

### Video 3: Section 1 Exercises Discussion¶

Applications. Measurements could be:

• fish caught at different times as the school of fish moves from left to right

• membrane voltage when an ion channel changes between open and closed

• EEG frequency measurements as the brain moves between sleep states

What phenomena can you imagine modeling with these HMMs?

# Section 2: Predicting the future in an HMM¶

Estimated timing to here from start of tutorial: 20 min

## Interactive Demo 2.1: Forgetting in a changing world¶

Even if we know the world state for sure, the world changes. We become less and less certain as time goes by since our last measurement. In this exercise, we’ll see how a Hidden Markov Model gradually “forgets” the current state when predicting the future without measurements.

Assume we know that the initial state is -1, $$s_0=-1$$, so $$p(s_0)=[1,0]$$. We will plot $$p(s_t)$$ versus time.

1. Examine helper function simulate_prediction_only and understand how the predicted distribution changes over time.

2. Using our provided code, plot this distribution over time, and manipulate the process dynamics via the slider controlling the switching probability.

Do you forget more quickly with low or high switching probability? Why? How does the curve look when prob_switch $$>0.5$$? Why?

Execute this cell to enable helper function simulate_prediction_only

# @markdown Execute this cell to enable helper function simulate_prediction_only

def simulate_prediction_only(model, nstep):
"""
Simulate the diffusion of HMM with no observations

Args:
model (GaussianHMM1D instance): the HMM instance
nstep (int): total number of time steps to simulate(include initial time)

Returns:
predictive_probs (list of numpy vector): the list of marginal probabilities
"""
entropy_list = []
predictive_probs = []
prob = model.startprob
for i in range(nstep):

# Log probabilities
predictive_probs.append(prob)

# One step forward
prob = prob @ model.transmat

return predictive_probs


Execute this cell to enable the widget!

# @markdown Execute this cell to enable the widget!

np.random.seed(101)
T = 100
noise_level = 0.5

@widgets.interact(switch_prob=widgets.FloatSlider(min=0.0, max=1.0, step=0.01, value=0.1))
def plot(switch_prob=switch_prob):
model = create_HMM(switch_prob=switch_prob, noise_level=noise_level)
predictive_probs = simulate_prediction_only(model, T)
plot_marginal_seq(predictive_probs, switch_prob)


Click for solution

# Section 3: Forward inference in an HMM¶

Estimated timing to here from start of tutorial: 35 min

## Video 6: Inference in an HMM¶

### Coding Exercise 3.1: Forward inference of HMM¶

As a recursive algorithm, let’s assume we already have yesterday’s posterior from time $$t-1$$: $$p(s_{t-1}|m_{1:t-1})$$. When the new data $$m_{t}$$ comes in, the algorithm performs the following steps:

• Predict: transform yesterday’s posterior over $$s_{t-1}$$ into today’s prior over $$s_t$$ using the transition matrix $$D$$:

$\text{today's prior}=p(s_t|m_{1:t-1})= p(s_{t-1}|m_{1:t-1}) D$
• Update: Incorporate measurement $$m_t$$ to calculate the posterior $$p(s_t|m_{0:t})$$

$\text{posterior} \propto \text{prior}\cdot \text{likelihood}=p(m_t|s_t)p(s_t|m_{0:t-1})$

In this exercise, you will:

• STEP 1: Complete the code in function markov_forward to calculate the predictive marginal distribution at next time step

• STEP 2: Complete the code in function one_step_update to combine predictive probabilities and data likelihood into a new posterior

• Hint: We have provided a function to calculate the likelihood of $$m_t$$ under the two possible states: compute_likelihood(model,M_t).

• STEP 3: Using code we provide, plot the posterior and compare with the true values

The complete forward inference is implemented in simulate_forward_inference which just calls one_step_update recursively.

Execute to enable helper functions compute_likelihood and simulate_forward_inference

# @markdown Execute to enable helper functions compute_likelihood and simulate_forward_inference

def compute_likelihood(model, M):
"""
Calculate likelihood of seeing data M for all measurement models

Args:
model (GaussianHMM1D): HMM
M (float or numpy vector)

Returns:
L (numpy vector or matrix): the likelihood
"""
rv0 = stats.norm(model.means, np.sqrt(model.vars))
rv1 = stats.norm(model.means, np.sqrt(model.vars))
L = np.stack([rv0.pdf(M), rv1.pdf(M)],axis=0)
if L.size==2:
L = L.flatten()
return L

def simulate_forward_inference(model, T, data=None):
"""
Given HMM model, calculate posterior marginal predictions of x_t for T-1 time steps ahead based on
evidence data. If data is not give, generate a sequence of measurements from first component.

Args:
model (GaussianHMM instance): the HMM
T (int): length of returned array

Returns:
predictive_state1: predictive probabilities in first state w.r.t no evidence
posterior_state1: posterior probabilities in first state w.r.t evidence
"""

# First re-calculate hte predictive probabilities without evidence
# predictive_probs = simulate_prediction_only(model, T)
predictive_probs = np.zeros((T,2))
likelihoods = np.zeros((T,2))
posterior_probs = np.zeros((T, 2))
# Generate an measurement trajectory condtioned on that latent state x is always 1
if data is not None:
M = data
else:
M = np.random.normal(model.means, np.sqrt(model.vars), (T,))

# Calculate marginal for each latent state x_t
predictive_probs[0,:] = model.startprob
likelihoods[0,:] = compute_likelihood(model, M[])
posterior = predictive_probs[0,:] * likelihoods[0,:]
posterior /= np.sum(posterior)
posterior_probs[0,:] = posterior

for t in range(1, T):
prediction, likelihood, posterior = one_step_update(model, posterior_probs[t-1], M[[t]])
# normalize and add to the list
posterior /= np.sum(posterior)
predictive_probs[t,:] = prediction
likelihoods[t,:] = likelihood
posterior_probs[t,:] = posterior
return predictive_probs, likelihoods, posterior_probs

help(compute_likelihood)
help(simulate_forward_inference)

Help on function compute_likelihood in module __main__:

compute_likelihood(model, M)
Calculate likelihood of seeing data M for all measurement models

Args:
model (GaussianHMM1D): HMM
M (float or numpy vector)

Returns:
L (numpy vector or matrix): the likelihood

Help on function simulate_forward_inference in module __main__:

simulate_forward_inference(model, T, data=None)
Given HMM model, calculate posterior marginal predictions of x_t for T-1 time steps ahead based on
evidence data. If data is not give, generate a sequence of measurements from first component.

Args:
model (GaussianHMM instance): the HMM
T (int): length of returned array

Returns:
predictive_state1: predictive probabilities in first state w.r.t no evidence
posterior_state1: posterior probabilities in first state w.r.t evidence

def markov_forward(p0, D):
"""Calculate the forward predictive distribution in a discrete Markov chain

Args:
p0 (numpy vector): a discrete probability vector
D (numpy matrix): the transition matrix, D[i,j] means the prob. to
switch FROM i TO j

Returns:
p1 (numpy vector): the predictive probabilities in next time step
"""
##############################################################################
# Insert your code here to:
#    1. Calculate the predicted probabilities at next time step using the
#      probabilities at current time and the transition matrix
raise NotImplementedError("markov_forward is incomplete")
##############################################################################

# Calculate predictive probabilities (prior)
p1 = ...

return p1

def one_step_update(model, posterior_tm1, M_t):
"""Given a HMM model, calculate the one-time-step updates to the posterior.
Args:
model (GaussianHMM1D instance): the HMM
posterior_tm1 (numpy vector): Posterior at t-1
M_t (numpy array): measurement at t

Returns:
posterior_t (numpy array): Posterior at t
"""
##############################################################################
# Insert your code here to:
#    1. Call function markov_forward to calculate the prior for next time
#      step
#    2. Calculate likelihood of seeing current data M_t under both states
#      as a vector.
#    3. Calculate the posterior which is proportional to
#      likelihood x prediction elementwise,
#    4. Don't forget to normalize
raise NotImplementedError("one_step_update is incomplete")
##############################################################################

# Calculate predictive probabilities (prior)
prediction = markov_forward(...)

# Get the likelihood
likelihood = compute_likelihood(...)

# Calculate posterior
posterior_t = ...

# Normalize
posterior_t /= ...

return prediction, likelihood, posterior_t

# Set random seed
np.random.seed(12)

# Set parameters
switch_prob = 0.4
noise_level = .4
t = 75

# Create and sample from model
model = create_HMM(switch_prob = switch_prob,
noise_level = noise_level,
startprob=[0.5, 0.5])

measurements, states = sample(model, nstep)

# Infer state sequence
predictive_probs, likelihoods, posterior_probs = simulate_forward_inference(model, nstep,
measurements)
states_inferred = np.asarray(posterior_probs[:,0] <= 0.5, dtype=int)

# Visualize
plot_forward_inference(
model, states, measurements, states_inferred,
predictive_probs, likelihoods, posterior_probs,t=t, flag_m = 0
)


Click for solution

Example output: ## Interactive Demo 3.2: Forward inference in binary HMM¶

• Use the sliders switch_prob and log10_noise_level to change the switching probability and measurement noise level.

• Use the slider t to view prediction (prior) probabilities, likelihood, and posteriors at different times.

When does the inference make a mistake? For example, set switch_prob=0.1, log_10_noise_level=-0.2, and take a look at the probabilities at time t=2.

Execute this cell to enable the demo

# @markdown Execute this cell to enable the demo

nstep = 100

@widgets.interact
def plot_forward_inference_widget(
switch_prob=widgets.FloatSlider(min=0.0, max=1.0, step=0.01, value=0.05),
log10_noise_level=widgets.FloatSlider(min=-1., max=1., step=.01, value=0.1),
t=widgets.IntSlider(min=0, max=nstep-1, step=1, value=nstep//2),
#flag_m=widgets.Checkbox(value=True, description='measurement distribution', disabled=False, indent=False),
flag_d=widgets.Checkbox(value=True, description='measurements', disabled=False, indent=False),
flag_pre=widgets.Checkbox(value=True, description='todays prior', disabled=False, indent=False),
flag_like=widgets.Checkbox(value=True, description='likelihood', disabled=False, indent=False),
flag_post=widgets.Checkbox(value=True, description='posterior', disabled=False, indent=False),
):

np.random.seed(102)

# global model, measurements, states, states_inferred, predictive_probs, likelihoods, posterior_probs
model = create_HMM(switch_prob=switch_prob,
noise_level=10.**log10_noise_level,
startprob=[0.5, 0.5])
measurements, states = sample(model, nstep)

# Infer state sequence
predictive_probs, likelihoods, posterior_probs = simulate_forward_inference(model, nstep,
measurements)
states_inferred = np.asarray(posterior_probs[:,0] <= 0.5, dtype=int)

fig = plot_forward_inference(
model, states, measurements, states_inferred,
predictive_probs, likelihoods, posterior_probs,t=t,
flag_m=0,
flag_d=flag_d,flag_pre=flag_pre,flag_like=flag_like,flag_post=flag_post
)
plt.show(fig)


# Summary¶

Estimated timing of tutorial: 1 hour, 5 minutes

In this tutorial, you

• Simulated the dynamics of the hidden state in a Hidden Markov model and visualized the measured data (Section 1)

• Explored how uncertainty in a future hidden state changes based on the probabilities of switching between states (Section 2)

• Estimated hidden states from the measurements using forward inference, connected this to Bayesian ideas, and explored the effects of noise and transition matrix probabilities on this process (Section 3)